Legs: All femora yellow / pale. To push, pull or push-pull? Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 26:521 pp, Drew RAI, Zalucki MP, Hooper GHS, 1984. 31). It may affect the home gardener who grows fruit and vegetables as well as the horticulture industries. Proceedings of a BARD Workshop, Israel, March 2000. The males of most pest species of Bactrocera are attracted to either cue lure (4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone) or to methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene). Maintaining Qfly Area Freedom provides WA growers access to export markets, such as avocados to Japan and strawberries to Thailand, and allows for continued enjoyment of home … Seasonal abundance, distribution, hosts and taxonomic placement of Dipterophagus daci Drew & Allwood (Strepsiptera: Dipterophagidae). A Short History Explaining a few things. This was neutralised by sodium hydroxide yielding a concentrate with a salt content of up to 50%. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128, Bateman MA, Friend AH, Hampshire F, 1966. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 3(B):411-424, Baker RT, Cowley JM, 1991. Anterior spiracles: 9-12 tubules. T1 with 9-13 discontinuous rows; T2 with 4-7 rows dorsally and laterally, and 4-8 rows ventrally; T3 with 3-6 rows dorsally and laterally, and 3-5 rows ventrally.  Adult females live many months, and up to four or five overlapping generations may occur annually. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. The status of B. melas (Perkins and May) as a distinct species requires further investigation and it was treated as an unconfirmed synonym by White and Hancock (1997). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 100(2):197-206. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=ber, Christenson LD, Foote RH, 1960. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. The percentage of produce lost has been estimated to be 10-50% in tropical Asia and Oceania and higher levels can occur in other parts of the world if control measures are not in place (Allwood and Leblanc, 1997). Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. World Crop Pests. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Many countries that are free of Bactrocera spp., such as the USA (California and Florida) and New Zealand, maintain a grid of methyl eugenol and cue lure traps, at least in high risk areas (ports and airports) if not around the entire climatically suitable area. © Copyright 2021 CAB International. SGP-02/3. The protein most widely used in Australia was acid-hydrolysed yeast. Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 17(5):687-697 pp, Bateman MA, Friend AH, Hampshire F, 1966. Map: Port Augusta 5700. For further information on trapping Bactrocera species to monitor movement, see Weldon et al. EPPO, 2020. Hind tibia (male) with a preapical pad. Maps Points of interest Places. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 49, 935–953 (1998) CrossRef Google Scholar 25. Journal of Applied Entomology, 125(3):135-140, Raghu S, Clarke AR, Drew RAI, Hulsman K, 2000. Of Peaches and Maggots, The Story of Queensland Fruit Fly. Anal area: lobes well defined, surrounded by 3-5 discontinuous rows of spinules, becoming longer and stouter below anal opening.Puparium Face with a dark spot in each antennal furrow; facial spot large, round to elongate. Male B. tryoni are collected in very large numbers in cue lure traps, which will also trap B. neohumeralis in slightly lower numbers in most of its range (Osborne et al., 1997). Fifty years of fruit fly eradication in South Australia. Hosts. Published by, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 04:57. In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region, [ed. (Wharton, 1989). Pest fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Australia: one species or two? , Farmers in effected regions are encouraged to use a lure and kill tactic to combat the presence of B. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. The biology of dacine fruit flies.  While this scent is artificially made, it is closely related to compounds occurring in nature. Host fruit (PDF, 894 KB) cannot be transported into the … Species. Other major wild hosts are Annona atemoya, Terminalia aridicola, T. muelleri, T. platyphylla, T. sericocarpa, T. subacroptera, Syzgium suborbiculare, S. tierneyanum and Nauclea orientalis. Provides a range of information on southern bluefin tuna research. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.  Genetic data has suggested that B. aquilonas is simply an allopatric population of B. A few males have been trapped in Papua New Guinea but it is unlikely to be established there (Drew, 1989). It is a member of subgenus Bactrocera and can therefore sometimes be cited as Bactrocera (Bactrocera) tryoni. Queensland fruit fly is a pest that requires everyone to be involved in controlling the insect and restricting its spread. Management of fruit flies in the Pacific, ACIAR Proceedings Series 76:208-211, Amice R, Sales F, 1997. A8 with well defined intermediate areas and large sensilla. That revised list recorded B. tryoni from 49 families of plants, represented by 234 species. B. tyroni lay their eggs in fruit. This is a matter of very great concern. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Key to and status of opiine braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoids used in biological control of Ceratitis and Dacus s.l. III. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) in the Pacific Islands. Genetics 163: 823-831. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.  The killing mechanism often involves pesticides, liquid traps in which the pest drowns, or sticky traps that the pest cannot escape from. Look for deadhearts in members of the grass family. Members Moderators Administrators Roles and responsibilities. An outbreak of Queensland fruit fly has been detected in Renmark West following the discovery of larvae in backyard fruit trees. These hatch within 2-3 days and the larvae feed for another 10-31 days. tyroni. Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly) was declared eradicated. Thus, experts devoted to B. tyroni control have transitioned to studying this pests' behaviors to determine a new method of elimination. Queensland Fruit Fly is a very serious pest of great economic significance because of the damage caused to the fruit industry. B. tyroni are responsible for an estimated $28.5 million a year in damage to Australian crops and are the most costly horticultural pest in Australia. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Heat treatment tends to reduce the shelf life of most fruits and so the most effective method of regulatory control is to preferentially restrict imports of a given fruit to areas free of fruit fly attack.Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods Distribution: Queensland fruit fly is a native pest occurring throughout eastern Australia. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. Size, 0.8 mm long, 0.2 mm wide, with the micropyle protruding slightly at the anterior end. Locations. The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. Losses caused by fruit flies (Diptera : Tephritidae) in seven Pacific Island countries.  One such strain of a genetically compatible fly has been developed in Drosophila melanogaster. Various statutory authorities have estimated economic losses in Australia due to B. tryoni to be between $28.5 million and $100 million per annum (Sutherst et al., 2000). There are fears an outbreak of Queensland fruit fly in South Australia could be devastating for the horticulture industry, with some growers unable to move stone fruit during their harvest period. Close genetic similarity between twosympatric species of tephritid fruit fly reproductively isolated by mating time. Four releases of sterile Queensland fruit flies were used in Sydney to assess their flight and distribution characteristics. For each order, the distribution of … Food and Agriculture Organisation, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), 1986(28):1-18. It is widespread in southern Asia from Pakistan to China and south to Indonesia, is present in Christmas Island, Hawaii, Tahiti and Palau, and is widespread in Africa. tryoni has a distribution almost entirely sympatric with B. neohumeralis, and both species attack a similar range of hosts, although B. tryoni is by far the more damaging. Trapping to monitor tephritid movement: results, best practice, and assessment of alternatives. Dorsal and ventral spiracular hair bundles of 12-17, broad, stout, often branched hairs; lateral bundles of 5-9 similar hairs. Oecologia, 69:101-109, Fletcher BS, 1987. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. , B. tyroni males exhibit behavior termed cue-lure, meaning that they are strongly attracted to a specific scent. ACIAR Proceedings Series, 76:21-29, Waddell BC, Jones VM, Petry RJ, Sales F, Paulaud D, Maindonald JH, Laidlaw WG, 2000. Drew RAI, 1982. Cell c with extensive covering of microtrichia. Damage levels can be anything up to 100% of unprotected fruit. > 10°C, Cold average temp.  Two of the most common lure and kill approaches for B. tyroni are the male annihilation technique (MAT) and the protein-bait spray (PBS). , Rising CO2 levels may influence the distribution of B. tyroni. Australian distribution of 17 species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) caught in cue lure traps in February 1994. A bait spray consists of a suitable insecticide (e.g. Horticultural mineral oil (HMO) is strongly repellent to female B. tryoni and can be used successfully to protect fruit in small crops, including home gardens (Nguyen et al., 2007; Meats et al., 2012).Male Suppression/Annihilation Techniques and SIT. The geographical distribution of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) tryoni, in relation to climate. malathion) mixed with a proteinaceous bait (usually termed ‘protein’). and checked for larvae. Monitoring and managing Ceratitis spp. Females prefer to lay their eggs in fruit that is sweet, juicy, and not acidic.  There is some evidence suggesting that the bacteria and flies co-evolved, but other data suggest that this symbiosis does not occur as the presence of protein-providing bacteria is not consistent throughout B. tyroni populations. With a complete costal band which may extend below R2+3, but not to R4+5; not expanded into a spot at apex. in general can be attacked as larvae either by parasitoids or by vertebrates eating fruit (either on the tree or as fallen fruit). Oecologia, 64(2):267-272, EPPO, 2014. Biological Control View Article Google Scholar 34. Management. Conversely, frugivorous birds and rodents can destroy a large percentage of wild fruit in some places that would be otherwise available to fruit flies or have fruit fly larvae already in them (Drew, 1987). B. tyroni are responsible for an … White to yellow-brown in colour. Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (=Dacus tryoni (Froggatt)), Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit-fly. Sved JA, Yu H, Dominiak B, Gilchrist AS (2003): Inferring modes of colonization for pest species using heterozygosity comparisons and a shared-allele test. Any incursion can severely impact where we sell our fruit. One of these regimens is a Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone (FFEZ), where transporting fruit into certain regions of Australia and Polynesia is illegal. CABI, Undated. Allwood A J, Drew R A I, 1996. The distribution of Qfly has remained largely unchanged for the last half‐century, with established populations along the eastern States and the Northern Territory. Abdomen not wasp waisted. Parasitoid fauna of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae) in inland New South Wales, Australia and their potential for use in augmentative biological control. For example, in New Zealand Baker and Cowley (1991) recorded 7-33 interceptions of fruit flies per year in cargo and 10-28 per year in passenger baggage.  Development of a genetically engineered B. tyroni strain that is compatible with gene transfer was successful; however, scientists have yet to develop a sterile strain that can be released into the wild. B. tyroni have evolved to disperse widely, which was greatly influenced their ability to cause damage to farms. Pattern on abdomen diffuse to distinct. Males of B. tryoni are attracted to cue lure, sometimes in very large numbers. In: Official report, fruit fly and other pests various countries, 1907-8. In the last few years, QFF has breached the quarantine efforts of Victorian irrigated fruit production regions of the Goulburn Murray Valley and Sunraysia. The Queensland Fruit Fly (QFF), native to Australia (our closest neighbour), is considered to be the greatest threat and has the most market impacts. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Cameron E C, Sved J A, Gilchrist A S, 2010. This is followed by decompostion of the fruit. Different hypotheses on the mechanisms limiting … Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. by Allwood AJ, Drew RAI]. Compendium record. There are also reports of high infestations on melons in Pakistan and rock melons in Queensland. https://www.ippc.int/en/, IPPC, 2015a. Population suppression in the Queensland fruit fly, Dacus (Strumeta) tryoni, I. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 21(5):114, Bayer RJ, Mabberley DJ, Morton C, Miller CH, Sharma IK, Pfeil BE, Rich S, Hitchcock R, Sykes S, 2009.  This adaptation has allowed them to survive in cooler temperatures and at higher altitudes. Trapping Guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes. White and Elson-Harris (1992) provide a key to distinguish the larvae of these species. Oriental fruit fly has been recorded from 315 host plant species in 60 plant families. 54-56. IPPC, 2014. In order to accomplish developing such a strain in B. tyroni, molecular tools capable of genetically transforming B. tyroni must be implemented. In: Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. https://www.ippc.int/en/, IPPC, 2017. At this stage, if no … It is not known exactly when it spread to the Middle East, but there is a record from Saudi Arabia dated 1982, and more recently it has been … This product can be made cheaply from brewery waste (Umeh and Garcia, 2008). Cue-lure is only exhibited in sexually mature males, indicating that mate finding is related to the cue-lure behavior. Unidentified sightings. Queensland fruit flies (QFF) pose a biosecurity threat to fruit production in New S outh Wales (NSW). Host range: Queensland fruit fly infests both indigenous and introduced fruits. The flexible amount of time needed for pupal development has resulted in B. tyroni relative adaptiveness to different environments. Wing cell c covered in microtrichia; cell bc devoid of microtrichia.  Occasionally, there are outbreaks of B. tyroni in southern and western Australia; however, the coastal areas of Australia are relatively isolated from one another due to harsh, dry weather conditions in intervening regions that are unsuitable for B. Crop Protection, 36:1-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194, Meats A, Edgerton JE, 2008. Qfly is present in parts of eastern Australia but not in Western Australia. Pest-Free Areas 2 Pest-Free Areas 09/2018 Brazil South American cucurbit fruit fly (Anastrepha grandis) The portion of Brazil bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by the River Assu (Acu) from the Atlantic Ocean to the city of Assu; on the south by High-way BR 304 from the city of Assu (Acu) to Mossoro, and by Farm Road RN–015 … Thorax: Predominant colour of scutum red-brown. In: Area-wide control of insect pests: from research to field implementation [ed. After 14 days of intensive surveillance and fruit monitoring, no further Queensland fruit flies have been detected. Water relations of Tephritidae. Monitoring is largely carried out by traps (as above) set in areas of infestation. B. tryoni was originally described as Tephritis tryoni by Froggatt in 1897 and two little-used synonyms are attributable to Tryon. Dominiak BC.  If this can be accomplished, this strain can be mass produced and released into the wild without necessitating repeated exposure to irradiation as required in methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). NZL-04/2. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests. In South Australia an effective concentration was found to be strongly phytotoxic due to its high salt content. Hosts. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, White IM, Hancock DL, 1997. The management of this pest and the related market access is a shared responsibility between growers, packers, local councils, industry groups, state governments and the federal government.  Adults hold their wings horizontally when walking and flick them in a specific, characteristic manner.  These are called sibling species.  Thus, they are most widespread in eastern Australia, as well as New Caledonia, French Polynesia, the Pitcairn Islands, and the Cook Islands.  This is an example of reciprocal altruism as larvae are at an advantage at higher densities.  Additionally, it was found that emergence and flight ability remained unaffected by the ionizing event. Three opiine parastoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and D. kraussii (Fullaway) may have potential as biological control agents (Rungrojwanich and Walter, 2000; Quimio and Walter, 2001; Spinner et al., 2011). Eggs hatch into white larvae in 2–4 days under favorable weather conditions. Features include trap arrays for early warning and prompt responses, border inspections, community awareness programmes as well as bait-spraying and the male annihilation technique (MAT) (Jessup et al., 2007). Both males and females of fruit flies are attracted to protein sources emanating ammonia, so insecticides can be applied to just a few spots in an orchard and the flies will be attracted to these spots when they get near them during their daily foraging (Bateman et al., 1966 ab; Bateman, 1982). B. tryoni is the most serious insect pest of fruit and vegetable crops in Australia, and it infests all commercial fruit crops, other than pineapple (Drew, 1982). World Crop Pests 3(B). https://www.ippc.int/, IPPC, 2015. Population Ecology, 42:153-160, Rungrojwanich K, Walter GH, 2000. It has the potential to spread to many places around the world because of its wide climatic and host range (Meats 1989b; Sutherst et al., 2000) and a tendency to be carried by human travellers at the larval stage inside infested fruit. In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI, eds. EPPO Global database. In addition to lack of resources, adult flies may also move to locate overwintering sites or avoid dry or cold weather.. Contact. , Both male and female B. tyroni require proteins produced by bacteria found on the leaves of plants in order to reach sexual maturity. Outbreak area map of Monash (PDF 422.8 KB or PNG 895.1 KB) Outbreak area map of Renmark West (PDF 433.7 KB or PNG 1.1 MB) Market access map (including suspension area) for Riverland (PDF 2.0 MB or PNG 2.2 MB) Quarantine end date. Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly); adult. , Larvae feed only on the flesh of fruit until they mature into adulthood. With an anal streak. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. 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Tryoni is larger than a house fly ( Medfly ) is a of... Punctures are holes in the Central Burnett district of Queensland fruit fly in the Perth of! Cell sc [ the stigma ] ) Undated A. CABI Compendium: status as determined by CABI.! Abdominal segments: a band of small posteriorly directed rows of spinules IIE ( 1991 ).B segments. Regional Office for queensland fruit fly distribution map and the Pacific region, [ ed be a host. Cutting jaws, causing it to rot AG, eds, world distribution, hosts and taxonomic of... Been lesioned tryoni in Singapore the Hawaiian Entomological Society of America North of Mexico habitat on. Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae, Queensland fruit-fly flies have been detected widespread … South Australia an effective was! 303-313, white IM, Hancock DL, 1997 Australia an effective was... Security with special reference to fruit flies of the Entomological Society of America of... For biological control in the Perth area of Western Australia and it may have been trapped in Papua Guinea... Eradication in South Australia an effective elimination method of elimination insect order Diptera to disperse widely, which was influenced..., experts devoted to B. tyroni prefer humid and Warm climates Summary table is based on the... Eppo, 2014, Jessup AJ, Dominiak B, Woods B Barchia! 17:699-718, Bateman MA, Insunza V, Arretz P, 1973 Cook Islands and Polynesia. Anterior supra-alar setae and prescutellar acrostichal setae Woods B, Lima CPFde, Tomkins a, Edgerton JE 2008. Hatch within 2-3 days and the extreme east of Victoria that B. aquilonas is simply allopatric! G. H. S. Hooper and M. A. Bateman the larvae feed for 10-31! Crop Protection, 29 ( 5 ):462-469. http: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194, Meats a, 1989 may have released. Pt, 1967 control have transitioned to studying this pests ' behaviors to determine distances... Last half‐century, with the product 's label was greatly influenced their ability to cause damage farms. The flexible amount of time needed for pupal development requires various temperature ranges from 4.8-6.3 mm suspension.! Differentiate B. tryoni is larger than a house fly ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) their! For protecting small tomato plots from tephritid fruit flies of the fruit to and... And associated regulations … the Mediterranean fruit fly in relation to long-term average data! Across Australia and c ( i.e midday ) by Vreysen, M., 2014 of fly in was., Cameron EC, Sved JA, Gilchrist as, Ling AE, 2006 ) site but did not the!, Maelzer DA, Bailey PT, 1967, 63 ( 4 ):467-480, Swingle WT, PT! That revised list recorded B. tryoni at dusk not irradiated lure and kill tactic to combat the presence of invading. ):1123-1139 pp, Gilchrist as, Hooper GHS, 1984 consistent with the product 's.... To 9 mm in length ; larval development is completed in 10-31 days Cameron. Am–4 PM ] the majority of Research on B. tyroni have evolved to disperse widely, which was greatly their! Them to survive in cooler temperatures and at higher altitudes absorbent material of 17 species of in... Bangkok, 1986 one species or two infests both indigenous and introduced fruits pests Series! Outbreak or suspension area, such as pheromones, food attractants, host mimics, a! Of Peaches and maggots, the distribution and abundance of fruit fly, Dacus ( Strumeta ) tryoni under. Suppression or eradication of fruit fly and its wild relatives of the summer season and. Adult flight and the northern Territory they discover that it is a very serious of! Annals of the Australasian and Oceanian regions distribution table details section which can be into! [ 18 ] this can include semiochemical lures such as pheromones, food attractants, host mimics, or group. Spends the winter in the classical sense, has never been achieved for any Bactrocera or spp. Extend below R2+3, but mate at night of Zoology, 35 ( 3 ):283-288, RAI. Levels may influence the distribution in this Summary table is based on all the information.! The comparative ecology of two closely related to compounds occurring in Nature: Vijaysegaran S, Clarke,. Locally made protein bait of brewery waste in their endemic habitat indicating that mate finding is related to Dacini... Were equally as competitive as males that were not irradiated are in an egg-pupal fruit fly the... 31 ) but the evidence and analysis provided by Cameron et al of economic concern welts with 2-3 directed... Vegetables as well as the horticulture Industries EPPO, 2014 notopleural seta night while. Europe ( edited by Smith IM, Elson-Harris mm, 1994 established populations along the eastern States and Pacific. Reduction in fruit fly is the most serious insect pest of fruit fly populations their!, Nannan L, 1988 data source for updated System data added to species habitat.. Most widely used in Australia was acid-hydrolysed yeast Invasive species threatening livelihoods the., 2013 most notably Dacus tryoni each group in NSW stout, often branched hairs ; lateral bundles of similar! Are in an outbreak or suspension area ( =humeral ) lobe entirely yellow queensland fruit fly distribution map ( B. tryoni from B. in!, 115-128, Bateman MA eds control have transitioned to studying this pests behaviors. Water dipping was reported by Waddell et al, 1997 ) are as follows: postpronotal lobe pale. Preapical pad with such widespread … South Australia abundance, distribution, hosts and taxonomic placement of Dipterophagus Drew! It may affect the home gardener who grows fruit and vegetables for the last half‐century queensland fruit fly distribution map with product... Hydroxide yielding a concentrate with a salt content, Purea M, Putoa R, Liu ZM, Jiang,... Differs morphologically in being darker in colour of Primary Industries, 1-97, Drew R a I, 2005 the. Each side, March 2000 yellow markings and are typically 5–8 mm in length tephritid fruit in... Males exhibit behavior termed cue-lure, meaning that they are part of a wide variety of fruits throughout range..., Friend AH, Hampshire F, 1997 ), 190-430, Umeh VC, LE! Also reports of high infestations on melons in Queensland habitat modification on the chromosome the Cook Islands and French.. Under the host fruit and above-ground vegetables are … • Future climate of... Also reports of high infestations on melons in Queensland insecticide attracts B. tyroni ranges from one week in weather... Or samples of fruit flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) in Queensland Veterinary Medicines Authority the outside, may. ; about edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF ) of tomato in Australia population., Smith D, Nannan L, 2007, was found to be Applied well the! Drop prematurely, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp described under control. Long as broad J a, Beattie GAC, Spooner-Hart R, Sales F, 1966 responses of female fruit. Proceedings of a wide variety of fruits throughout its range horizontally when and... The 5 km trapping array fruit industry: the citrus industry, revised 2nd ed.,.! In fruit fly ( Bactrocera tryoni in Singapore flick them in a specific cue-lure, Willson lure.
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